Oleh Bebby Elisa

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1 TOEFL 1 STRUCTURE COMPREHENSION SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUN PRONOUN VERB AGREEMENT SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUN HOW TO IDENTIFY NOUNS There are a number of clues to identify nouns or noun phrases in a sentence: 1. The word is preceeded by an article, an adjective or a determiner (a, an, the, some, any, few, alot of, little) For example: A destination; many activities; Any question; a lot of things; The magnificence; 2. This word is preceeded by a Possessive Pronoun (my, his, her, your) and Possessive Auxiliary Verb (have, has). For example My dream; its value; Your idea; their proposal; His courage; our suggestion; Its value; 3. Any word after preposition “of” For example 2 The capital city of America; A holy book of Moslem; A teaching of Christianity; A fellow of Buddhist; Most of the cases; The goal of the project; The height of mount Everest SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUN Some nouns can be counted which later will be called count noun or countable noun, and some cannot be counted which will be called non-count noun or uncountable noun. A single unit or one of count noun is called singular noun which some are written or spelled differently compare to the same noun which is more than one unit. Singular plural A bird two birds A street two streets To make most nouns plural, add “s” A baby two babies Change the y to i for noun which is ended in a consonant +y and add -es A class two classes A box two boxes Add –es to noun ending in –sh, -ch, -ss, and –x A toy two toys If –y is preceded by a vowel, add only –s. A tomato two tomatoes A mosquito two mosquitoes 3 Nouns end in –o, needs additional –es (plural) A zoo two zoos A radio two radios Nouns end in –o need additional –s (plural) A fish two fish A sheep two sheep The plural form of some nouns is the same as the singular form A bacterium two bacteria A phenomenon two phenomena For some nouns, the plural form is taken from foreign language A knife two knives A shelf two shelves If a noun ends in –fe or –f, change the ending to –ves. Irregular Plural Form of Countable Nouns Child children datum data Foot feet ox oxen Mouse mise Tooth teeth Person people 4 NON-COUNT NOUN (UNCOUNTABLE NOUN) For example Water, air, sugar, money We can not say one water; one milk; or one air Individual parts (count nouns) The whole (non-count A letter, a postcard, a bill, mail An apple, a banana fruit nouns) COMMONT NON-COUNT Advice;gold; milk; Beauty; glass; nationality; Beef; history; oil; Bread; equipment; news; Butter; Health; patience; knowledge; honesty; mail; Clothing; ice; money; Courage; time Uncountable nouns are nouns that have only one form and take a singular verb For example The country produces much rice; Mathematics is my favorite subject The furniture in this room is to be replaced THE NOUNS THAT ARE ALWAYS PLURAL Each of the following nouns is always considered plural. It can’t be singular. If someone wants to speak it as a singular noun, one has to say: “a pair of........” Glasses; pliers; Pants; scissors; Jeans; tongs; Shorts; tweezers The scissors are in the drawer; A pair of those scissors is dull; The pants are in the washing machine; A pair of my pants is hanging in the cupboard 5 STRATEGIES 1.Do NOT end singular nouns with –s/-es Kathy has finished reading one chapter of the book; There is one empty chair in the back row for you to sit on.; 2. Use singular nouns after the words below. a/an a single One another That every This each There was not a single car in the parking lot; The school needed another baseball coach She needs every penny she earns to support her family 3. Do NOT use a/an with plural nouns About twenty calves are grazing in the field; There are beautiful birds of paradise in the zoo They used axes to cut the trees 4. Use plural nouns after the words below A number of each of A couple of a lot of Various all Some other The institution gave scholarships to a number of students.; Teachers use various techniques to make their lessons interesting.; 5. When words such as hundred, thousand or million follow a number, do NOT put them in a plural form Two hundred more employees are being recruited for the growing company About sixty thousand rupiahs could be collected during the cultural night 6 6. Be careful of irregular plural nouns The research presented a lot of valuable data; Oxen are usually used as draft animals 7. Use uncountable nouns with the words below Much Little a little An amount of They have to live on whatever little money they earn We did not see much furniture in this house EXERCISES Choose the correct determiners in the following sentences 1. I need (a few/ a little) rice for my baby 2. You need (many/ much) money to buy a car 3. My wife sold (that/those) bikes yesterday morning 4. There are (less/fewer) cars in this parking lot than in that parking lot 5. We need (many/ much) information before making a decision 6. Recently we always see (many/ much) bad news on television 7. There were (a large number of/ a large amount of) people in the room 8. We need (a great number of/ a large amount of) ice for the fish 9. You can get (a few/ a little) books in my room 10. I have (less/fewer) oil than you 7 PRONOUN PRONOUN A pronoun is a word that substitutes a noun or a noun phrase and denote persons or things asked for, which have been previously specified or understood from the context. 1. SUBJECT PRONOUN A subject pronoun is a pronoun that can be used as a subject of a sentence. I It She We You You He They I gave Imelda money; He called me; She is waiting for him; They let him go, We thank them; You hurt her 2. OBJECT PRONOUN Me it Him you You us Her them She doesn’t know me; I want you to call them tomorrow; Audience gave him a big applause Antonio gave her a flower; I have a flower vase. I want to put it on the table 3. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUN A possessive adjective pronoun is used only with a noun following it My its His our Your your Her their They are my friends; I keep your note book in the drawer; Febri bought his computer last year; The dog is waving its tail; 8 4. POSSESSIVE PRONOUN A possessive pronoun is used alone, without a noun following it. Mine its His yours Yours ours Her theirs This book is mine, that one is yours; Don’t take the cake, it is hers; Our house is larger than theirs; Clara was my girlfriend, but now she is his; 5. REFLEXIVE PRONOUN A reflexive pronoun usually appears directly after a verb. Myself itself Himself themselves Yourself yourselves Herself ourselves I teach myself how to cook; Don’t hurt yourself with that knife; Lucy blames herself for many things; We need to learn how to improve ourselves; 6. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns are all used in adjective/relative clauses. Who is used as a subject referring to a person Whom is used as an object referring to a person Which or that is used as a subject or an object referring to a thing Whose is used to replace a possessive adjective The woman who lives next door is a doctor relative pronoun The woman - she lives next door – is a doctor The woman who lives next door is a doctor 9 Where is the cheese? – it was in the fridge Where is the cheese that was in the fridge? We saw some people – their car had broken down We saw some people whose car had broken down The woman whom I wanted to see was away on holiday. (I wanted to see her) EXERCISES Put in myself/ yourself/ ourselves or me/you/us 1. Julia had a great holiday. She enjoyed......... 2. It’s not my fault. You can’t blame....... 3. What I did was very wrong. I’m ashamed of....... 4. We’ve got a problem. I hope you can help..... 5. “Can I take another biscuit?” “Of course. Help........!” 6. Take somw money with.......in case you need it Complete the sentences with –selves or each other 1. How long have you and Bill known............? 2. If people work too hard, they can make.........ill 3. I need you and you need me. We need.............. 4. In Britain friends often give...............presents at Christmas 5. Some people are very selfish. They only think of.......... 6. Nora and I don’t see........very often these days 10 VERB AGREEMENT VERB AGREEMENT The basic concept of subject-verb agreement is that verbs must agree in person and in number with their subjects. Agreement in number means that singular subjects must be followed by singular verbs, and plural subjects by plural verbs 1. Some nouns with –s endings are singular and take singular verbs. Aerobics linguistics diabetes Economics Cards mechanics rabies politics Mathematics gives me a headache; Athletics is popular in my country; Billiards is not so popular today; Politics plays an important part in modern life 2. A number of takes a plural verb, but the number of takes a singular verb. A number of houses are not occupied; A number of politicaians declare a new political party The number of the guests is 5 persons; The number of students who passed the exam is 25 students 3. Subjects with the following prepositional phrases take a singular verb: As well as together with Accompanied by Along with in addition to among Among her works is To the King’s Most Excellent Health 4. The words on the list below are grammatically singular, and should always take singular verbs. Anybody no one something Everyone 11 Everybody someone Anyone each (+singular noun) anything everything every (+singular noun) Somebody is knocking at the door Nobody wants to be treated unfairly Nothing in this world is certain 5. The words below take a singular or plural verb depending on the noun that follows them: None half some Most all majority no any All of her poems were good All of her work was good EXERCISES Choose the correct form of the verb in the following sentences 1. Every junior high school student (has/ have) to take the final examination 2. There (has/ have) been too many students who have problems in their family 3. The army (is/ are) preparing kinds of weapons to attack the terrorists 4. The jury (was/ were) discussing the rubrics for the competition when I came 5. A pack of small birds (fly/ flies) over this village every morning 6. Our team always (become/ becomes) the winner of the annual competition 7. Either the students or the teacher always (work/ works) together to finish the project 8. Anybody (is/ are) free to visit this interesting place 9. A pair of trousers (was/ were) already bought by my son 10. Your glasses really (suit/ suits) you

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Oleh: Bebby Elisa

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