Akuntansi Keuangan Menengah

Oleh 2-q Pkn Stan

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Transkrip Akuntansi Keuangan Menengah

PROGRAM STUDI D-III AKUNTANSI

1

Review Siklus Akuntansi
Keuangan
diringkas & dituturkan kembali oleh
ALI TAFRIJI BISWAN
ALTAF
1

Temu ke1

Pokok Bahasan
Review Siklus Akuntansi Keuangan

Referensi
Intermediate
Accounting,
Ed. 2, Ch. 3

Fokus Belajar

h

2




Basis akuntansi –akrual
Fase –siklus akuntansi
• Double entry system
• Jurnal, TB, adjusting entries, F/S, closing
entries, post-closing TB
• Dampak aplikasi akuntansi (SI terkomputerisasi)

Basis akuntansi –akrual

1

UB menengah ke atas, apalagi yg sudah masuk bursa efek
(wajib IFRS), menggunakan basis akrual



Accrual accounting
recognizes revenues as
they are earned, not
necessarily when cash is
received

That’s true. And, accrual
accounting recognizes expenses
as they are incurred, not
necessarily when cash is paid
Cash-basis accounting is
focused on cash receipts
and cash disbursements

3

2

Fase –Siklus Akuntansi
Recording
Process

Step 1
Business
documents
analyzed

Step 2
Transactions
recorded in
journals

Step 3
Transactions
posted to
ledgers

Step 4
Trial balance

Reporting Process

4

Work sheet
(optional)

Step 5
Adjustments

Step 6
F/S

Step 7
Closing

Step 8
Post-closing
trial balance
(optional)

Double Entry System –saldo normal
Akuntansi dikodifikasi
saat ditemukan doubleentry system pada 1494
(abad 15) oleh Luc.
Pacioli dalam "Summa
de Arithmetica,
Geometria Proportioni
et Proportionalita"

• Meskipun demikian, praktik pencatatan transaksi inflows-outflows sudah
dilakukan pada abad 7, bahkan sebelumnya. Transaksi akuntansi makin
berkembang saat ditemukannya angka “Nol” oleh al-Khawarizm (abad 9).
• Ber-akuntansi secara jujur & adil merupakan salah satu perintah suci (QS
2:282).
5

Jurnal → postinglah ke ledger/BB
Date
2016 July

Descriptions
PR
1 Dividends
330
Dividens payable
260
Declare semiannual cash dividends
11 Equipment
Notes payable
Issues notes for new equipment

Page 24

Debits
25.000.000

180
220

Credits
25.000.000

7.500.000
7.500.000

The Equipment account in the general ledger after the purchase
of July 10 has been posted would appear as follows:
Account

Date
2016
July 1
11
6

EQUIPMENT
Item
Balance
Purchase Equipment

Account No: 180

PR

Debit


J24 7.500.000

Credit

Balance
10.550.000
18.050.000

Sistem Koding –COA
ASSETS (100-199)
Current Assets (100-150)
101 Cash
105 Accounts Receivable
107 Inventory
Long-Term Assets (151-199)
151 Land
152 Building
LIABILITIES (200-299)
Current Liabilities (200-219)
201 Notes Payable
202 Accounts Payable

7

Long-Term Liabilities (220-239)
222 Mortgage Payable
EQUITY (300-399)
301 Shares Capital
330 Retained Earnings
SALES (400-499)
400 Sales Revenue
EXPENSES (500-599)
500 Cost of Goods Sold
523 Rent Expense
528 Advertising Expense
573 Utility Expense

Jurnal → BB → Trial Balance
Vitasari Prima, Co.
Trial Balance
Dec., 31, 2016
Debits
Cash
21.000.000
Accounts receivable 15.000.000
Inventory
12.000.000
Land
200.000.000
Accounts payable
Share capital
Retained earnings
Sales
COGS
850.000.000
Advertising expense 10.000.000
Misc. expenses
15.000.000
Total
1.123.000.000

Credits

30.000.000
150.000.000
24.000.000
919.000.000

1.123.000.000

Double entry system
BALANCE itu penting, meski…
8

Tribute to Akt
13/14

Preparing Adjusting Entries
Adjusting entries are required at the end of
each accounting period for accrual- basis
accounting, prior to preparing the financial
statements. The purpose for adjusting
entries are to:
• bring balance sheet accounts current.
• reflect proper amounts of revenues,
costs, and expenses on the income
statement.
9

Depreciation


Rosi, Inc. purchased buildings in 2009 at a cost of
$156,000, an expected life of 20 years, and no
anticipated residual value. Each year, 5% of the cost is
depreciated. At the end of 2014, the following
adjusting entry is made:
Adjusting Entry
12/31 Depreciation Expense—Buildings
Accumulated Depr.—Buildings
To record depreciation
on building at 5% per year.

10

7,800
7,800

Bad Debts


An estimation of bad debts based on the ending
receivables balance reveals that the allowance
account needs to be increased by $1,100
Adjusting Entry
12/31 Bad Debts Expense

Allowance for Bad Debts
To adjust for estimated bad

debts expense.

11

1,100

1,100

Accrued Expenses & Accrued Revenues


At the end of the fiscal period, Rosi, Inc. had accrued
salaries and wages totaling $2,150
Adjusting Entry
12/31 Salaries and Wages Expense
Salaries and Wages Payable
To record accrued salaries and
wages.



2,150

2,150

Rosi, Inc. holds a note receivable from a customer on
which interest total $250 has accrued
Adjusting Entry
12/31 Interest Receivable
Interest Revenue
To record accrued interest on a
note receivable.
12

250
250

Prepaid Expenses


Rosi, Inc.’s trial balance shows that the asset account
Prepaid Insurance has a balance of $8,000. By
December 31, only $3,800 applies to future periods
Adjusting Entry
12/31 Insurance Expense
Prepaid Insurance
To record expired insurance.



4,200
4,200

Rosi, Inc.’s trial balance shows that the asset account
Insurance Expense has a balance of $8,000. By
December 31, $3,800 applies to future periods
Adjusting Entry
12/31 Prepaid Insurance
Insurance Expense
To record expired insurance.
13

3,800
3,800

Deferred Revenues –pdkt pencatatan?


Rosi, Inc. receives a payment of $2,550 from a
customer prior to the services being rendered. By
December 31, $2,075 in services have been provided
Adjusting Entry
12/31 Rent Revenue
Unearned Rent Revenue
To record unearned rent revenue.



475

475

Rosi, Inc. receives a payment of $2,550 from a
customer prior to the services being rendered. By
December 31, $2,075 in services have been provided
Adjusting Entry
12/31 Unearned Rent Revenue
Rent Revenue
To record rent revenue.
14

2,075
2,075

Inventory adjustment
Rosi, Inc.
Trial Balance
December 31, 2016

Cash
Accounts Receivable
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Inventory
Prepaid Insurance
Interest Receivable
Notes Receivable
Land
Buildings
Accumulated
Depreciation—Buildings
15

$ 83,110
106,500
$ 1,610
45,000
8,000
0
28,000
114,000
156,000
39,000

Inventory adjustment
Rosi, Inc.
Trial Balance
December 31, 2016

Cash
Accounts Receivable
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Dividends
Sales
Purchases
Purchases Discounts
Cost of Goods Sold
Salaries and Wages Expense
Heat,
Light, and Power
16

$ 83,110
106,500
$ 1,610
13,600
479,500

162,600
3,290

0
172,450
32,480

Inventory adjustment
Purchases, Purchases Discounts, and Cost of Goods Sold are
affected by the adjusting entry to update the inventory
account

Adjusting Entry
12/31 Inventory
Purchases Discounts
Cost of Goods Sold
Purchases



6,000
3,290
153,310

$51,000 – $45,000



162,500

If perpetual, the cost of the merchandise is recorded by a
debit to Cost of Goods Sold and a credit to Inventory
17

F/S…apa saja dalam IFRS?
Record
Transactions

18

Prepare
Trial
Balance

Make
Adjusting
Entries

Prepare
Financial
Statements

The Closing Process
Revenues
xxx

Bal. xxx

Retained Earnings
Beg. Bal. xxx
Revenues

Closing entries reduce all nominal accounts to
a zero balance

Since the revenue account is a nominal
account, it is closed at the end of the
period to Retained Earnings.
19

The Closing Process
Retained Earnings

Beg. Bal. xxx
Revenues
Expenses

Expenses
Bal. xxx

xxx

The expense account
is credited in order to
close the account at
the end of the period.
20

The Closing Process
Retained Earnings

The dividends
account, which is also
nominal, is credited
to close out the
balance.

Beg. Bal. xxx
Revenues

Expenses
Dividends

Dividends

Bal. xxx

xxx
21

The Closing Process
Retained Earnings

Retained Earnings is a
real account and
always carries a
balance.

Beg. Bal. xxx
Revenues

Expenses
Dividends

End. Bal. xxx

Net Income for the
period is determined by
these two items.

Dividends reduce
Retained Earnings
22

Post-Closing Trial Balance
J-Budi, Inc.
Post-Closing Trial Balance
as of December 31, 2016
Debits
Cash
$ xx
Accounts Receivable
xx
Inventory
xx
Supplies
xx
Accounts Payable
Capital Stock
Retained Earnings
Totals
$xx
Only real accounts will have a balance at this time
23

Credits

$ xx
xx
xx
$xx

Dampak Aplikasi Akuntansi (SI terkomputerisasi)




There has been a rapid increase in the use of computers
to assist in performing many of the tasks found in the
accounting cycle
Computers are well suited to perform many accounting
cycle tasks

Recall
Mathematical
Computations


BUT, computers will never replace the accountant

24

Latihan/Penugasan
(tiap kutipan disertakan sumbernya)


Lihat RPS

25

Judul: Akuntansi Keuangan Menengah

Oleh: 2-q Pkn Stan


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